# Demystifying the Combined Ratio: Meaning, Measurements, Formula, and Illustrations

Learn about the combined ratio in insurance, what it measures, its formula, and find examples to illustrate its significance.

The combined ratio is a key financial metric used in the insurance industry to assess the profitability and operational efficiency of an insurance company. It provides insights into an insurer's underwriting performance and its ability to manage claims and expenses. Here, we'll demystify the combined ratio by explaining its meaning, measurements, formula, and providing illustrations.

**Meaning:**The combined ratio is a measure of an insurance company's overall underwriting profitability. It expresses the relationship between premiums earned, claims incurred, and underwriting expenses. A combined ratio below 100% indicates profitable underwriting, while a ratio above 100% suggests an underwriting loss.

**Measurements:**The combined ratio typically comprises three components:

**Loss Ratio (LR):**This represents the percentage of premiums earned that an insurer pays out in claims. A lower loss ratio indicates that the insurer is effectively managing its claims.**Expense Ratio (ER):**This measures the percentage of premiums earned spent on underwriting expenses, such as employee salaries, commissions, and administrative costs. A lower expense ratio suggests efficient cost management.**Combined Ratio (CR):**The combined ratio is the sum of the loss ratio and expense ratio. It reflects the total percentage of premiums used to cover claims and expenses. A combined ratio below 100% indicates profitability.

**Formula:**The combined ratio is calculated using the following formula:

Combined Ratio (CR) = Loss Ratio (LR) + Expense Ratio (ER)

**Illustrations:**

**Company A:**Let's consider an insurance company, Company A, which has the following metrics for a specific period:- Premiums earned: $10 million
- Claims incurred: $4 million
- Underwriting expenses: $2 million

Calculating the components:

- Loss Ratio (LR) = ($4 million / $10 million) * 100% = 40%
- Expense Ratio (ER) = ($2 million / $10 million) * 100% = 20%
- Combined Ratio (CR) = LR (40%) + ER (20%) = 60%

A combined ratio of 60% indicates that Company A is operating efficiently, with a 40% profit margin from underwriting activities.

**Company B:**Now, let's consider Company B with the following metrics:- Premiums earned: $12 million
- Claims incurred: $8 million
- Underwriting expenses: $3 million

Calculating the components:

- Loss Ratio (LR) = ($8 million / $12 million) * 100% = 66.67%
- Expense Ratio (ER) = ($3 million / $12 million) * 100% = 25%
- Combined Ratio (CR) = LR (66.67%) + ER (25%) = 91.67%

A combined ratio of 91.67% indicates that Company B is experiencing an underwriting loss as it's spending more on claims and expenses than it's earning in premiums.

**Interpretation:**

- A combined ratio below 100% suggests profitable underwriting operations. Lower combined ratios indicate better profitability.
- A combined ratio exceeding 100% indicates an underwriting loss, meaning that the insurer is paying out more in claims and expenses than it's collecting in premiums.
- Insurers strive to maintain a combined ratio below 100% to ensure profitability in their core underwriting operations. If the combined ratio consistently exceeds 100%, it may indicate a need for operational improvements or premium rate adjustments.

In summary, the combined ratio is a fundamental metric in the insurance industry that helps assess underwriting performance and profitability. It's crucial for insurance companies to closely monitor and manage their combined ratios to ensure financial sustainability.

## Combined Ratio: Definition, What It Measures, Formula, Examples.

**Definition**

The combined ratio is a measure of an insurance company's profitability. It is calculated by dividing the sum of incurred losses and expenses by the earned premium.

**What it measures**

The combined ratio measures how well an insurance company is able to cover its losses and expenses with its premium income. A combined ratio of less than 100% indicates that the company is making an underwriting profit, while a combined ratio of greater than 100% indicates that the company is underwriting a loss.

**Formula**

The formula for the combined ratio is:

**Combined ratio = (Incurred losses + Expenses) / Earned premium**

**Examples**

- An insurance company has incurred losses of $100 million, expenses of $50 million, and earned premiums of $150 million. The combined ratio would be:

(100,000,000 + 50,000,000) / 150,000,000 = 100%

- An insurance company has incurred losses of $80 million, expenses of $40 million, and earned premiums of $120 million. The combined ratio would be:

(80,000,000 + 40,000,000) / 120,000,000 = 100%

- An insurance company has incurred losses of $120 million, expenses of $60 million, and earned premiums of $180 million. The combined ratio would be:

(120,000,000 + 60,000,000) / 180,000,000 = 100%

In the first example, the company is breaking even, as the combined ratio is 100%. In the second example, the company is making an underwriting profit, as the combined ratio is less than 100%. In the third example, the company is underwriting a loss, as the combined ratio is greater than 100%.

**Conclusion**

The combined ratio is a useful tool for measuring the profitability of an insurance company. By tracking the combined ratio over time, insurance companies can identify trends in their profitability and make necessary changes to improve their performance.